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Results of a new epidemiological analysis of more than 108,000 women observed a lower risk of early menopause among women who had at least one pregnancy lasting at least six months and among those who had breastfed their infants. Further, risk was lowest among those who breastfed exclusively. The work is by first author and Ph.D. student Christine Langton, with her advisor Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson at the University of Massachusetts Amherst's School of Public Health and Health Sciences.

對108,000多名婦女進行的一項新的流行病學分析結果顯示,至少有一次懷孕并持續了6個月的婦女和母乳喂養過嬰兒的婦女提前絕經的風險較低。此外,純母乳喂養者的風險最低。這項研究由第一作者、博士生克里斯汀·蘭頓和她的導師、馬薩諸塞大學阿默斯特公共衛生與健康科學學院的伊麗莎白 貝爾托內·約翰遜共同完成。



These two factors, pregnancy (parity) and breastfeeding, generally prevent ovulation and may slow the natural depletion of ovarian follicles over time, the authors point out. Thus pregnancy and breastfeeding are believed to lower the risk of early menopause, which is defined as the end of menstruation before age 45. Early menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and osteoporosis. Details appear in the online open-access journal JAMA Network Open.

作者指出,這兩個因素,妊娠(胎次)和母乳喂養,通常會阻止排卵,并可能隨著時間的推移減緩卵泡的自然損耗。因此,懷孕和母乳喂養被認為可以降低更年期提前的風險,即在45歲之前月經結束的風險。更年期提前與心血管疾病、認知能力下降和骨質疏松癥的風險增加有關。詳情刊登在在線開放獲取的期刊《JAMA Network Open》上。

Langton and colleagues suggest that while their results did not demonstrate a clear dose-response for breastfeeding, their findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a biological mechanism is influenced by longer breastfeeding. Also, findings from other studies support that optimal benefits from breastfeeding exclusively, for both mother and baby, reach a threshold between six and 12 months. Breastfeeding exclusively means that the baby receives no liquids or solid foods, only breast milk.

蘭頓和他的同事們認為,雖然他們的研究結果并沒有明確顯示母乳喂養的劑量反應,但他們的發現與長期母乳喂養影響生物學機制的假設是一致的。此外,其他研究的結果也支持,對母親和嬰兒而言,純母乳喂養的最佳益處在6個月至12個月之間達到一個閾值。純母乳喂養是指嬰兒不吃任何液體或固體食物,只喝母乳。



As Langton explains, "In our study, women with three or more pregnancies who breastfed exclusively for a total of 7 to 12 months had about a 32% lower risk of early menopause compared to women with the same number of children who breastfed exclusively for less than one month." Langton and colleagues also observed what they call other notable associations. Compared to women with no full-term pregnancies, women who had two pregnancies had a 16% lower risk of early menopause and women with three pregnancies saw a 22% lower risk.

正如蘭頓所解釋的那樣:“在我們的研究中,有三次或三次以上懷孕的婦女,如果全部用母乳喂養7到12個月,她們的更年期提前的風險要比那些同樣數量的孩子只用母乳喂養不到一個月的婦女低32%?!?蘭頓和他的同事們還觀察到了他們稱之為“其他顯著關聯”的現象。與沒有足月妊娠的女性相比,兩次懷孕的女性提前絕經的風險降低了16%,三次懷孕的女性提前絕經的風險降低了22%。



For this work, Langton and colleagues conducted their prospective, population-based study within the on-going Nurses'' Health Study II cohort that began collecting data in 1989. They report that response rates were 85-90%. Parity, menopause status and age were measured at baseline and every two years, while breastfeeding factors were assessed three times during follow-up. Women in the study were followed until menopause or age 45, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, death, cancer diagnosis or loss to follow-up.

對于這項研究,蘭頓和他的同事們在1989年開始收集數據,在正在進行的“護士健康研究II”群體中展開了基于人群的前瞻性研究。



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